Title page for ETD etd-07022010-180232
A confluence of factors determines the biological diversity we observe today. Here I conducted three investigations historic geographic and ecological that shaped morphological genetic rainforest birds in Southeast Asia.
(1) In Oriental Dwarf Kingfisher (Ceyx erithaca) complex are highly polymorphic plumage. Quantitative analysis this variation indicated a large proportion Sumatra Malay Peninsula Borneo have plumages intermediate between northerly black form from mainland Asia southerly rufous Java. Phylogenetic analyses continental (north Peninsula) were well differentiated those insular This distinction correlates with fixed plumage difference (mantle coloration). Coalescent showed polymorphism was caused by past introgression two parental forms.
(2) sampled 16 lowland bird species primarily to test long standing hypothesis animals on different Sundaic landmasses intermixed extensively when low sea levels during Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) exposed land bridges. rejected all but five through coalescent simulations. Environmental niche modeling presence unsuitable habitats western eastern Sundaland LGM coincided deeper inter population divergences. The distinctiveness northeastern populations some may be underlain combination included riverine barriers expansion montane forests regional physiography.
(3) further investigated population divergence demographic histories possessed disparate characteristics. Multilocus revealed changes effective sizes driven long term environment instead high frequency glacial cycles. Populations exhibited stronger growth than suggesting differences environmental or directional colonization. widest habitat breadth also greatest amount inter landmass gene flow. adds growing body empirical work indicating an association species characteristics its connectivity over evolutionary time scales
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