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Titlenotes on liberty | spontaneous thoughts on a humble creed

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notes on liberty
prices in canada, 1688 to 2015
sons outearning fathers in chetty et al. : working hours should be considered
cheap college: ten tips
a flaw regarding the chance of “out-earning” your parents
in cuba, not having a car might save your life
regional jealousies and transboundary rivers in south asia
testing the high-wage economy (hwe) hypothesis
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strong
note:
1. accept a full-tuition scholarship.
2. avoid the athletics trap.
3. split your degree.
4. try distance learning.
5. stay with your parents.
6. distance learning abroad.
7. move abroad.
8. erasmus+.
9. cut corners while still following the rules.
10. make sure you do french and german.
an honest account of hwe
why not france? or how to test hwe
my counter-argument : social networks and diffusion
conclusion
b
i
em note:
1. accept a full-tuition scholarship.
2. avoid the athletics trap.
3. split your degree.
4. try distance learning.
5. stay with your parents.
6. distance learning abroad.
7. move abroad.
8. erasmus+.
9. cut corners while still following the rules.
10. make sure you do french and german.
an honest account of hwe
why not france? or how to test hwe
my counter-argument : social networks and diffusion
conclusion
Bolds strong 15
b 0
i 0
em 15
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home https://notesonliberty.com/
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about the notewriters https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/
brandon christensen https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/brandon-christensen/
jacques delacroix https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/jacques-delacroix/
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nick cowen https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/nick-cowen/
lucas g. freire https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/lucas-freire/
vincent geloso https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/vincent-geloso/
edwin van de haar https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/edwin-van-de-haar/
jeffrey rogers hummel https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/jeff-hummel/
mark koyama https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/mark-koyama/
michelango landgrave https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/michelango-landgrave/
chhay lin lim https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/chhay-lin-lim/
adrián lucardi https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/adrian-lucardi/
amit ranjan https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/amit-ranjan/
william rein https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/william-rein/
bruno gonçalves rosi https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/bruno-goncalves-rosi/
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matthew strebe https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/matthew-strebe/
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guest notewriters https://notesonliberty.com/about-the-notewriters/guest-notewriters/
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prices in canada, 1688 to 2015 https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/09/prices-in-canada-1688-to-2015/
https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/09/prices-in-canada-1688-to-2015/
vincent geloso https://notesonliberty.com/author/vincentgeloso/
economics https://notesonliberty.com/category/economics/
canada https://notesonliberty.com/tag/canada/
economic history https://notesonliberty.com/tag/economic-history/
inflation https://notesonliberty.com/tag/inflation/
price index https://notesonliberty.com/tag/price-index/
the paper is here and it shows how much prices have changed in canada since the late 17th century. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2881432
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1 comment https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/09/prices-in-canada-1688-to-2015/#comments
sons outearning fathers in chetty et al. : working hours should be considered https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/09/sons-outearning-fathers-in-chetty-et-al-misleading/
https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/09/sons-outearning-fathers-in-chetty-et-al-misleading/
vincent geloso https://notesonliberty.com/author/vincentgeloso/
economics https://notesonliberty.com/category/economics/
liberty https://notesonliberty.com/category/liberty/
economic development https://notesonliberty.com/tag/economic-development/
economic growth https://notesonliberty.com/tag/economic-growth/
fathers https://notesonliberty.com/tag/fathers/
income inequality https://notesonliberty.com/tag/income-inequality/
income mobility https://notesonliberty.com/tag/income-mobility/
inequality https://notesonliberty.com/tag/inequality/
raj chetty https://notesonliberty.com/tag/raj-chetty/
social justice https://notesonliberty.com/tag/social-justice/
social mobility https://notesonliberty.com/tag/social-mobility/
sons https://notesonliberty.com/tag/sons/
my post yesterday https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/08/a-flaw-regarding-the-chance-of-out-earning-your-parents/
graph here http://www1.realclearmarkets.com/images/wysiwyg_images/eberstadt4.jpg
nicolas eberstadt’s work here https://www.amazon.com/men-without-work-americas-invisible/dp/1599474697
ell as the decline in hours worked by males https://eh.net/encyclopedia/hours-of-work-in-u-s-history/
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1 comment https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/09/sons-outearning-fathers-in-chetty-et-al-misleading/#comments
cheap college: ten tips https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/08/cheap-college-ten-tips/
https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/08/cheap-college-ten-tips/
lucas g. freire https://notesonliberty.com/author/lgfreire/
education https://notesonliberty.com/category/education/
college https://notesonliberty.com/tag/college/
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on this video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evjeaajedby
open university http://www.open.ac.uk/
university of london’s http://www.londoninternational.ac.uk/
distance degree in religious studies http://www.abdn.ac.uk/sdhp/divinity-religious-studies/christian-and-religious-studies-flexible-programme-430.php
unisa http://www.unisa.ac.za
north-west university http://distance.nwu.ac.za/
germany http://www.topuniversities.com/student-info/student-finance/how-much-does-it-cost-study-germany
finland http://www.studyinfinland.fi/tuitionfees2017
portugal http://www.educations.com/study-guides/europe/study-in-portugal/tuition-fees-7820
spain http://www.studying-in-spain.com/costs-of-attending-college-in-spain/
france https://www.studyineurope.eu/study-in-france/tuition-fees
italy http://studylink.com/study-in-italy-2/
erasmus+ programme https://ec.europa.eu/programmes/erasmus-plus/node_en
gary north https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=evjeaajedby
doing a credit-awarding exam https://clep.collegeboard.org/
for reading knowledge http://www.jstor.org/stable/380552
investment http://money.cnn.com/2012/06/11/pf/college/student-loan-value/
not healthy to owe tens, if not hundreds of thousands of dollars http://www.daveramsey.com/blog/9-lies-college-student-loans
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leave a comment https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/08/cheap-college-ten-tips/#respond
a flaw regarding the chance of “out-earning” your parents https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/08/a-flaw-regarding-the-chance-of-out-earning-your-parents/
https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/08/a-flaw-regarding-the-chance-of-out-earning-your-parents/
vincent geloso https://notesonliberty.com/author/vincentgeloso/
economics https://notesonliberty.com/category/economics/
david leonhardt https://notesonliberty.com/tag/david-leonhardt/
economic growth https://notesonliberty.com/tag/economic-growth/
income inequality https://notesonliberty.com/tag/income-inequality/
inequality https://notesonliberty.com/tag/inequality/
justin wolfers https://notesonliberty.com/tag/justin-wolfers/
raj chetty https://notesonliberty.com/tag/raj-chetty/
social justice https://notesonliberty.com/tag/social-justice/
he last one is no exception http://www.equality-of-opportunity.org/papers/abs_mobility_paper.pdf
leonhardt http://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/08/opinion/the-american-dream-quantified-at-last.html?_r=0
ustin wolfers https://twitter.com/justinwolfers/status/806932253804593153
who mentioned this issue in dissent back in the 1950s http://banmarchive.org.uk/collections/ulr/2_usa_inc.pdf
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9 comments https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/08/a-flaw-regarding-the-chance-of-out-earning-your-parents/#comments
in cuba, not having a car might save your life https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/08/in-cuba-not-having-a-car-might-save-your-life/
https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/08/in-cuba-not-having-a-car-might-save-your-life/
vincent geloso https://notesonliberty.com/author/vincentgeloso/
current events https://notesonliberty.com/category/current-events/
economics https://notesonliberty.com/category/economics/
cuba https://notesonliberty.com/tag/cuba/
demographics https://notesonliberty.com/tag/demographics/
health indicators https://notesonliberty.com/tag/health-indicators/
life expectancy https://notesonliberty.com/tag/life-expectancy/
transportation https://notesonliberty.com/tag/transportation/
werner troesken https://notesonliberty.com/tag/werner-troesken/
blog https://notesonliberty.com/2016/11/28/castro-coercing-cubans-into-health/
posts https://notesonliberty.com/2016/11/30/on-cubas-fake-stats/
first blog post https://notesonliberty.com/2016/11/28/castro-coercing-cubans-into-health/
pox of liberty http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/p/bo14007600.html
this paper in demography (one of the top demographic journals) finds that male life expectancy in brazil is lowered by 0.8 years by traffic deaths. and traffic has very little to do with the quality of health care services.  http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13524-012-0135-7
according to who data http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/road_safety_status/2015/country_profiles/country_profiles/en/
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leave a comment https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/08/in-cuba-not-having-a-car-might-save-your-life/#respond
regional jealousies and transboundary rivers in south asia https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/07/regional-jealousies-and-transboundary-rivers-in-south-asia/
https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/07/regional-jealousies-and-transboundary-rivers-in-south-asia/
amit ranjan https://notesonliberty.com/author/amitranjanjnu/
current events https://notesonliberty.com/category/current-events/
history https://notesonliberty.com/category/history/
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indus waters treaty https://notesonliberty.com/tag/indus-waters-treaty/
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maps https://notesonliberty.com/tag/maps/
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punjab https://notesonliberty.com/tag/punjab/
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punjab https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/punjab,_india
rajasthan https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/rajasthan
indus waters treaty https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/indus_waters_treaty
kutch https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/kutch_district
gujarat https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/gujarat
jammu & kashmir https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/jammu_and_kashmir
here https://notesonliberty.files.wordpress.com/2016/12/iwt.pdf
- https://notesonliberty.files.wordpress.com/2016/12/blog-india.jpg
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1 comment https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/07/regional-jealousies-and-transboundary-rivers-in-south-asia/#comments
testing the high-wage economy (hwe) hypothesis https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/07/the-high-wage-economy-hypothesis/
https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/07/the-high-wage-economy-hypothesis/
vincent geloso https://notesonliberty.com/author/vincentgeloso/
economics https://notesonliberty.com/category/economics/
history https://notesonliberty.com/category/history/
anton howes https://notesonliberty.com/tag/anton-howes/
economic growth https://notesonliberty.com/tag/economic-growth/
economic history https://notesonliberty.com/tag/economic-history/
england https://notesonliberty.com/tag/england/
france https://notesonliberty.com/tag/france/
high wage economy https://notesonliberty.com/tag/high-wage-economy/
industrial revolution https://notesonliberty.com/tag/industrial-revolution/
jane humphries https://notesonliberty.com/tag/jane-humphries/
joel mokyr https://notesonliberty.com/tag/joel-mokyr/
judy stephenson https://notesonliberty.com/tag/judy-stephenson/
leonard dudley https://notesonliberty.com/tag/leonard-dudley/
morris altman https://notesonliberty.com/tag/morris-altman/
nick crafts https://notesonliberty.com/tag/nick-crafts/
piece rates https://notesonliberty.com/tag/piece-rates/
pseudoerasmus https://notesonliberty.com/tag/pseudoerasmus/
robert allen https://notesonliberty.com/tag/robert-allen/
spinning jenny https://notesonliberty.com/tag/spinning-jenny/
stephen broadberry https://notesonliberty.com/tag/stephen-broadberry/
textile https://notesonliberty.com/tag/textile/
twitterminar https://notesonliberty.com/tag/twitterminar/
wages https://notesonliberty.com/tag/wages/
judy stephenson https://www.wadham.ox.ac.uk/people/fellows-and-academic-staff/s/judy-stephenson
ben schneider https://about.me/benschneider
benjamin guilbert https://twitter.com/search?q=benjamin%20guilbert&src=typd
mark koyama http://economics.gmu.edu/people/mkoyama2
pseudoerasmus https://pseudoerasmus.com/2016/12/01/allen/
anton howes http://antonhowes.tumblr.com/
alan fernihough https://diffuseprior.wordpress.com/
lyman stone https://twitter.com/lymanstoneky
  https://www.amazon.com/economic-growth-high-wage-economy/dp/0415232627
economic growth and the high-wage economy https://www.amazon.com/economic-growth-high-wage-economy/dp/0415232627
here https://www.jstor.org/stable/40721811?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
he also made the same argument with my native home province of quebec relative to ontario during the late 19th century http://search.proquest.com/docview/1305247632?pq-origsite=gscholar
see his book here http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521687850
which is what nick crafts has done https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/european-review-of-economic-history/article/explaining-the-first-industrial-revolution-two-views/9b64d4c5bc42bf81fc8bb5fbe7dc66eb
here https://twitter.com/vincentgeloso/status/806159364335734788
this led to differing rates of technological adoptions, an example of which is the spinning jenny http://www.jstor.org/stable/25654027?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
kelly, mokyr and ó gráda https://ideas.repec.org/a/anr/reveco/v6y2014p363-389.html
here http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468-0289.12048/full
here https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=0j_jbaaaqbaj&oi=fnd&pg=pa368&dq=transport+gerhold+england&ots=fk5jv5xpsb&sig=11m6gu79usqoprm0r_1ipytpyiq
here http://www.jstor.org/stable/20111952?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents
arket size is a function of transaction costs between individuals, a large share of which are determined by institutional arrangements http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s0167268106003088
judy stephenson https://notesonliberty.com/2016/02/01/the-high-wage-economy-the-stephenson-critic/
jane humphries and jacob weisdorf http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s0167268106003088
pseudoerasmus has made this point https://pseudoerasmus.com/2016/12/01/allen/
iven robert fogel’s work on net nutrition in france and england http://web.mit.edu/14.71/www/fogel-economic%20growth.pdf
with reservations http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2fs12113-007-9015-1?li=true
lan manning in his work on monopsony https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=dneq_8lxccqc&oi=fnd&pg=pa3&dq=monopsony+in+motion&ots=pxkunwgx-k&sig=lqjsnhujsuzlakih79uvhjdxupw#v=onepage&q=monopsony%20in%20motion&f=false
his point has been made convincingly by gragnolati, moschella and pugliese in the  https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-economic-history/article/div-classtitlethe-spinning-jenny-and-the-industrial-revolution-a-reappraisaldiv/793a9e7cd899a54a88defddb6c4d6fe1
journal of economic history. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/journal-of-economic-history/article/div-classtitlethe-spinning-jenny-and-the-industrial-revolution-a-reappraisaldiv/793a9e7cd899a54a88defddb6c4d6fe1
mothers of innovation https://www.amazon.com/mothers-innovation-expanding-industrial-revolution/dp/1443840963
economic affairs, i argued (expanding on dudley) that social networks allowed this mixing http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ecaf.12138/full
one of the most cited books in economics, but not by cliometricians – more than 7000 citations on google scholar https://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=jlc3cgaaqbaj&oi=fnd&pg=pr5&dq=competition+and+entrepreneurship&ots=zh9ruxkncz&sig=qksd2hwlpglchrlqejsz-evqso8#v=onepage&q=competition%20and%20entrepreneurship&f=false
summary here http://antonhowes.tumblr.com/post/143173119024/how-innovation-accelerated-in-britain-1651-1851
whose work http://www.lse.ac.uk/economichistory/seminars/eh590workshop/eh590lt2013/james-dowey-eh590-16.01.13.pdf
nspired by peter bent’s inet research webinar on institutional responses to financial crises, i am trying to organize a similar (low-cost) venue for presenting research papers on hwe assessment.  https://sites.google.com/site/ysieconomichistory/
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for many people, the american dream has been vanishing - marginal revolution http://marginalrevolution.com/marginalrevolution/2016/12/many-people-american-dream-vanishing.html
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carta de voltaire dirigida a rousseau, em resposta a ele https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/07/carta-de-voltaire-dirigida-a-rousseau-em-resposta-a-ele/#comment-42206
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- degrees of freedom: liberal political philosophy and ideology (2015) http://www.amazon.com/degrees-freedom-political-philosophy-ideology/dp/1412855756/ref=sr_1_3?s=books&ie=utf8&qid=1416155724&sr=1-3&keywords=edwin+van+de+haar&pebp=1416155730498
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- nietzsche as political philosopher (2014) http://www.amazon.com/nietzsche-political-philosopher-today/dp/3110359367/ref=sr_1_1?s=books&ie=utf8&qid=1402535279&sr=1-1
- rousseau on language and writing: two perspectives (2014) http://www.amazon.com/rousseau-language-writing-barry-stocker-ebook/dp/b00k1b54iq
- i used to be french: an immature autobiography (2014) http://www.amazon.com/dp/b00jy0g3sa
- les pumas de grande banlieue: histoires d'émigration (2014) http://www.amazon.com/dp/b00ni2pcgo
- du grand rattrapage au déclin tranquille: une histoire économique et sociale du québec de 1900 à nos jours (2013) http://www.amazon.ca/grand-rattrapage-d%c3%a9clin-tranquille-%c3%a9conomique/dp/2924151120/ref=sr_1_1?ie=utf8&qid=1365519772&sr=8-1&keywords=vincent+geloso
- emancipating slaves, enslaving free men: a history of the american civil war (2013) http://www.amazon.com/emancipating-slaves-enslaving-free-men/dp/0812698436/ref=sr_1_2?ie=utf8&qid=1396239592&sr=8-2&keywords=emancipating+slaves+enslaving+free+men
- bemind maar onbekend: de politieke filosofie van het liberalisme (2011) http://www.uitgeverijaspekt.nl/boekdetail.php?id=9789461530141
- red shambhala: magic, prophecy, and geopolitics in the heart of asia (2011) http://www.amazon.com/red-shambhala-magic-prophecy-geopolitics/dp/0835608913/ref=sr_1_2?s=books&ie=utf8&qid=1403123238&sr=1-2&keywords=andrei+znamenski
a flaw regarding the chance of “out-earning” your parents https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/08/a-flaw-regarding-the-chance-of-out-earning-your-parents/
minorities and economic growth: evidence from jewish communities in premodern europe https://notesonliberty.com/2016/09/13/minorities-and-economic-growth-evidence-from-jewish-communities-in-premodern-europe/
testing the high-wage economy (hwe) hypothesis https://notesonliberty.com/2016/12/07/the-high-wage-economy-hypothesis/
on cuba's fake stats https://notesonliberty.com/2016/11/30/on-cubas-fake-stats/
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skip to content notes on liberty spontaneous thoughts on a humble creed menu homeabout the consortiumabout the notewritersbrandon christensenjacques delacroixwarren gibsonlode cossaernick cowenlucas g. freirevincent gelosoedwin van de haarjeffrey rogers hummelmark koyamamichelango landgravechhay lin limadrián lucardiamit ranjanwilliam reinbruno gonçalves rosieliana santanatogliabarry stockermatthew strebefederico sosa-vallerick weberzachary woodmanandrei znamenskiguest notewritersrecommendations prices in canada, 1688 to 2015 12/09/201612/07/2016 vincent geloso economics canada, economic history, inflation, price index i have just finished my working paper creating a price index for canada that covers the period from 1688 to 1850 in order to link with the existing datasets that cover up to 2015. here is the result (and the paper is currently consideration for publication). the paper is here and it shows how much prices have changed in canada since the late 17th century. share this:tweetemailshare on tumblrpocketlike this:like loading... 1 comment sons outearning fathers in chetty et al. : working hours should be considered 12/09/201612/08/2016 vincent geloso economics, liberty economic development, economic growth, fathers, income inequality, income mobility, inequality, raj chetty, social justice, social mobility, sons in response to my post yesterday, my friend and economist/nuclear engineer (great mix) laurent béland pointed out that the father-sons mobility figures in chetty et al. are depressing. yes, at first glance, they are (see below – the red line).  but, at second glance, it is not as terrible. think about family structures with the 1940 birth cohorts. the father works and, in most likelihood, the mother is a stay-at-home father. most of the earnings come from the father who probably works 45 to 60 hours a week.  if my father earns 40,000$ at 60 hours a week or earn 40,000$ at 40 hours a week, the line remains at the same height, but we are not talking about the same living standard in reality. chetty et al. do not account for hours worked to achieve income.  the steep decline – faster than the baseline of household-size adjusted decline – matches the steep increase in female labor force participation and the decline labor force participation of males (see graph here and nicolas eberstadt’s work here) as well as the decline in hours worked by males. if the question had been “what are your chances of out-earning your father per hour worked”, then the red line would not have fallen like that. income divided by labor supplied would probably bring the red-line back with the blue-line. note: again, please note that i am not trying to rip apart chetty et al. (as some have claimed elsewhere). their work is great and as a guy who does all his research on providing data series regarding economic history, i am never going to rip on someone who does hard data work like chetty et al. did ! my point is that i am not convinced that the decline is so big. and, in good faith, it seems that chetty et al. do try to put the “caution” labels where its needed – and its important to discuss those caution labels before some politician or two-cents-pundit goes all trump on us by saying stuff that this doesn’t say! share this:tweetemailshare on tumblrpocketlike this:like loading... 1 comment cheap college: ten tips 12/08/201612/08/2016 lucas g. freire education college, higher education, personal finances, student debt forgiveness, student loans, student resources, students, study abroad if you’re about to embark on your undergraduate education in the us or canada, you probably have a good chance of ending up owing some money to pay for your studies and expenses. can you avoid financial disaster and still end up with a pretty good “education” section on your cv? i believe so, and i’d like to share with you a few tips on cheap college education. they might turn out to be useful, whether you want to go straight to the job market after graduation or whether you have further studies in mind. i did my undergraduate degree in brazil. then, i moved to the uk and completed my graduate education there with a very generous stipend. i also taught in higher education in both countries, including two top universities in the uk. i worked part-time for an institute attached to a university in europe. now i work at a major university in south africa. i know a few things about higher education, and here’s a list of tips for you. 1. accept a full-tuition scholarship. if you’ve received an offer of a full-tuition scholarship, go for it. as long as it’s not a loan. no brainer. you’re being subsidised to study full-time. this is your job now. do a little bit of networking and career skills training, but focus on your degree. try to do as well as you can. the problem with this strategy is that, quite frankly, the vast majority of students aren’t offered scholarships that get even close to covering full tuition costs. 2. avoid the athletics trap. don’t count on your prowess in sports to put you in a position where you earn full tuition to study. athletics scholarships cover at most a fraction of the college cost. at most, you’d be able to combine an athletics scholarship with some other source of funding, but even if you get to that stage, you’ll have to figure out a way of earning b+ or a on average with little time to study. 3. split your degree. this is the oldest trick in the book. yet, not enough students seem to follow it. i didn’t know the north american system very well, and i owe this point to gary north. he explains it on this video. in the us, you can save a lot of money by doing the first two years of your degree at a community college or some other low-cost higher education institution. you can earn an associate degree and then transfer credits to a four-year college to complete your bachelor’s degree. one advantage (apart from the financial factor) is that you could do it in the evenings, while you earn some money during the day. another advantage is that permanent teaching staff in a small college or a community college are gifted teachers – that’s why they were given their jobs in the first place – whereas at a major university professors are rewarded according to their research achievements and teaching might not be terrible, but it’s not necessarily the best you can get either. 4. try distance learning. this is emerging as a major alternative to traditional university attendance. you can either earn credits (which you can, later, transfer) or a whole degree at a fraction of the normal cost of university attendance. you can also combine this with point (3) above. 5. stay with your parents. okay, as a brazilian i didn’t see any problem in staying home for another four years during my university education. there are advantages and disadvantages to this, and it’s up to you to decide if this strategy is worth it, depending on your family’s culture and habits. but the fact is that, even if your parents charge you some rent, they won’t charge as much as the average university dorm would. this means you can save. plus there won’t be any learning curves related to living in a completely new locality. this strategy requires you to do either a distance-learning degree or to attend your local college, and you can combine this with points (3) and (4) above. 6. distance learning abroad. this can be combined with (3), (4) and (5) above. the truth is, most employers don’t care very much about where you got your undergraduate education, except if the place is one of the top five or ten universities in the country. higher education in the uk is slightly cheaper (on average) than in the us, and often much cheaper if you’re doing it online. you can register at the open university, or at the university of london’s international programmes. depending on the area of study, you can even do a distance degree part-time while you work, paying for each course at a time. the university of aberdeen, for example, offers a distance degree in religious studies along those lines. if you give up halfway, you can still earn a che degree after completing the first year, a he diploma after two years, and the undergraduate course in the uk normally lasts for three years (except, normally, for scotland). if you want to save even more money and benefit from favourable exchange rates, you could also apply to study at the university of south africa (unisa), one of the world’s largest universities. unisa has a very good reputation. remember nelson mandela? he earned a degree there. for south africans, each year of study costs around 1,000 dollars, and if you live abroad, you need to pay extra, but not a whole lot more. there are no classes. normally, you use multimedia material, lots of written material, and travel to some place in your country where you can do the exams. so you need to factor in the cost of travel, but it still might be worth it. other south african universities, such as north-west university, also offer distance degrees for certain fields. 7. move abroad. this is also becoming more of an alternative for north americans. in germany, for example, you can register at a university, as long as you can prove you know the german language well, and get a degree from some of the top universities in the world. the downside is the learning curve of moving abroad, visa bureaucracy and, perhaps, the cost of living in europe might not be worth it. for example, you could pay low tuition fees in finland, but it’s not that cheap to live there. for a tuition fee of around 1,000 euros per year you can also do a degree in portugal or spain. tuition fees in france and italy are also relatively cheap. all this assumes you can prove you know the local language well enough to register. depending on where you go, the case for doing a degree abroad is even stronger. in portugal and spain, an undergraduate degree normally takes four years. in italy and france, it depends. in germany, it normally takes three. this means you save a whole year of expenses. 8. erasmus+. if you decide to do your degree in europe, you can still end up experiencing campus life and networking in north america. the reason is that students at european universities can be selected to do a year abroad under the erasmus+ programme, and some of the partner universities are from north america. this is not very easy, but what i mean to say is simply that going abroad doesn’t mean abandoning any hope of experiencing student life in north america. 9. cut corners while still following the rules. you should thank gary north for pointing this out. in a north american degree, you must do a number of credits, including electives or credits you can choose, as part of the total number of credits you must earn to obtain the degree. you can cut corners and save time and money by learning independently and then doing a credit-awarding exam. some of the exams you can do are for general courses you’d end up doing as an elective anyway. 10. make sure you do french and german. how does this relate to “cheap college”? i confess there’s no direct relation. but i’d still urge you to do french and german as electives, particularly if they’re “for reading knowledge“. those are intensive courses that get you to be able to read scholarly work in french or german by the end of a semester. this might not in itself make your college life cheaper now, but it will get you some skills you can use in the future. it gives you a head start in applying for the top, well-funded, phd programmes in the us and canada, in case that’s what you’re planning to do. most phd courses require you to have reading knowledge of at least one, if not two, of these languages. you might as well do it now. moreover, if you just want to go to the workplace after you graduate, this can also give you a little advantage over the competition. while it doesn’t necessarily make your college any cheaper, this strategy will make your life easier by adding another relevant item to your cv which might turn out to be very useful in the near future. i hope those tips can be useful. maybe you’re even reconsidering whether you should really get deep into debt in order to earn a degree. well, here’s my appeal. please reconsider. student loans may be common. some even call this kind of debt an investment. but it’s not healthy to owe tens, if not hundreds of thousands of dollars when you’re just 22 or 23 and under pressure to find a good job to pay that money back. you want to be free. maybe you want to go to a well-funded graduate programme without that stress. maybe you want to get married. who knows? before accepting a loan to finance your education, please consider these alternative options. i urge you. before concluding, a disclaimer. i’m not saying any of these tips will work in every case. be responsible and make sure you understand the details and implications of any decisions you make. check, for example, if your target university or college will accept credit transfers from the place where you obtained those credits. read the small print. but this is more or less what you’d be doing if you accepted a loan – you’d read the small print, right? share this:tweetemailshare on tumblrpocketlike this:like loading... leave a comment a flaw regarding the chance of “out-earning” your parents 12/08/201612/08/2016 vincent geloso economics david leonhardt, economic growth, income inequality, inequality, justin wolfers, raj chetty, social justice when raj chetty publishes a paper, it generally comes with a splash. the last one is no exception. his paper (co-authored), picked up by david leonhardt at the new york times and justin wolfers on twitter, basically measures the american dream : what are your chances to do better than your parents. the stunning conclusion is that someone born in 1940 had a 90%+ chance of “out-earning” his parents compared with a few points above 50% for those born in the 1980s. i am not convinced. well, when i am not convinced, i am saying i am not convincing about how big the drop is! i think the drop is smoother (the slope of decline is gentler) and the starting point for the 1940 cohort is too high.  as a big fan of chetty, i must press this point. more precisely, i am saying that the bar (income threshold) over which someone had to jump in 1940 is underestimated and overestimated in 1980. setting the bar too low (high) means very high (low) chances of “out-earning” your parents. to set the bar too low, you must underestimate (overestimate) the income of the parents.  this could occur if household economies of scale are not accounted for. an income of 30,000$ for 3 persons is not the same as an income of 60,000$ for 6 peoples. on a per capita basis, the income is the same. but, if you adjust for economies of scale in housing and furnitures, there are differences (the simplest is square root).  this gives you income per adult equivalent. chetty et al. are aware of that and they provided a sensitivity analysis which is not mentioned by those who are relaying the article. since household size has tended to fall over time, the growth in per capita income is faster than the growth in income per adult equivalent (a better measure). any correction for this long-term demographic trend would attenuate the slope of the decline of the chance to out-earn your parents. and indeed, once chetty et al. make the correction, the decline is much more modest (but still present – see below). simultaneously, chetty et al. also present other important sensitivity checks. all of them relevant. but, in a strange decision, chetty et al. decided to isolate each of the sensitivity checks rather than compile them. taken individual, they all seem minor – except adjusting for family size. but compound this with the other sensitivity check proposed by chetty et al.: price deflators. using the well-known bias in the the cpi that overestimates inflation by 0.8%, chetty et al. find that, by the end of their perod, there is roughly a ten percentage point difference between the baseline uncorrected cpi and the corrected cpi (see below). compound this with the corrections for family and you still get a decline – but again the slope of the decline is much more modest. if you add panel b from figure 3 in chetty et al – which includes taxes and transfers – you probably get a few extra points up. there will still probably be a decline, but a moderate one. finally, at footnote 19, chetty et al. also point out that they do not account for in-kind transfers prior to 1967 (there were some).  and, on page 13, they point out that “one may be concerned that levels of absolute mobility for recent cohorts may still be understated because of increases in fringe benefits, nonmarket goods, or under-reporting of income in the cps”. add in all these little extra problems to the family size, the transfers and the inflation correction and i am not sure how big the drop from 1940 to the end of the studied period is. finally, i would also add that an understudied point in economic history is what the distribution of in-kind payments according to income was. from studying the british industrial revolution, i have generally to see that it is the poorest workers who receive in-kind payments (which are not measured) and the richest receive much fewer of those in proportion of their incomes. one of the few to note that distributional was the hardcore left-leaning scholar gabriel kolko who mentioned this issue in dissent back in the 1950s.  if kolko is correct, then the income of “poor parents” in 1940 is underestimated. as a result, the bar over which the children of said parents must jump is set mildly too low. if that is the case, the odds for the 1940 birth cohort are overestimated. combine all of these things together and i am not sure that the drop is as dramatic as many are making it out to be. i would be very satisfied if chetty et al. would publish all the corrections they did and do a sensitivity check with hypothetical regarding a sliding-scale of in-kind payments in 1940 according to income (10% of income for poorest to 0% for the richest). i would just like to see how much it matters. share this:tweetemailshare on tumblrpocketlike this:like loading... 9 comments in cuba, not having a car might save your life 12/08/201612/08/2016 vincent geloso current events, economics cuba, demographics, health indicators, life expectancy, transportation, werner troesken my two blog posts on the health statistics of cuba have convinced me to try to assemble a research article on the topic of assessing health outcomes under castro’s regime. my first blog post was that there is a trade-off (the core of the article) that castro decided to make. he would use extreme coercive measures to reduce some forms of mortality in order to shore up support abroad. the cost of such institutions is limited economic growth and increased mortality from other causes (dying from waterborne diseases or poverty diseases rather than dying from measles). when i thought of that, i was inspired by werner troesken’s pox of liberty on the american constitution and the disease environment of the country. i was mostly concerned by direct medical interventions. however, the extent of coercive measures used by castro go well beyond simple medical care (or medical imposition). price controls, rationing and import restrictions on many goods could also help improve life expectancy. indeed, rationing salt at 10g (hypothetical number) per person per day is a good way to prevent dietary diseases that emerge as a complication from overconsumption of salt. that will, by definition, raise life expectancy. and so will bans on importing cars. there is an extensive literature on the role that car fatalities has on life expectancy. this paper in demography (one of the top demographic journals) finds that male life expectancy in brazil is lowered by 0.8 years by traffic deaths. and traffic has very little to do with the quality of health care services. basically, the more you drive, the more chances you have of dying (duh!). but, people don’t care much because the benefits of driving outweigh the personal risks. in cuba, people don’t get to make that choice. as a result, the very few drivers on cuban roads have few accidents. according to who data, the car fatality rate is 8.15 per 100,000. there is also only 55 cars per 1,000 persons in cuba. the next closest country is nicaragua at 93 cars per 1,000 and the top country is uruguay at 584 cars per 1,000. when you compute reported (rather than who estimated) car fatalities per 1,000 cars (rather than persons), cuba becomes the unsafest place to drive in latin america (1.46 fatalities per 1,000 cars) after el salvador (2.22 fatalities per 1000 cars but only 129 cars per 1000), ecuador (1.78 fatalities per 1000 cars but only 109 cars per 1000) and bolivia (1.53  fatalities per 1000 cars and only 113 cars per 1000). the graph below shows the relation between car fatalities per 100,000 inhabitants and life expectancy. cuba is singled out as a black square. low rate of car fatalities, higher life expectancy. obviously, this is not a regression and so i am not trying to infer too much. however, it seems fair to say that cuba’s life expectancy can easily be explained by the fact that cubans face stiff prohibitions on the ability to drive. those prohibitions give them a few extra years of life for sure, but would you really call that a ringing endorsement of the health outcomes under castro’s regime? i don’t… share this:tweetemailshare on tumblrpocketlike this:like loading... leave a comment regional jealousies and transboundary rivers in south asia 12/07/2016 amit ranjan current events, history igos, india, indus waters treaty, international relations, maps, pakistan, punjab, rajasthan, regionalism in the final reckoning, pakistan got about 80 per cent of the indus and india 20 per cent. india has limited rights on the western rivers and cannot undertake projects on those rivers without providing all the details to pakistan and dealing with pakistan’s objections. why did india put itself in that position? the answer is that if pakistan got the near-exclusive allocation of the three western rivers, india for its part got the eastern rivers. this was important from the point of view of the indian negotiators because the water needs of punjab and rajasthan weighed heavily with them in seeking an adequate allocation of indus water for india. yet, punjab had a serious grievance over the signing of the iwt [indus waters treaty] by the union government. citing provisions of the iwt which caused transfer of three river waters to pakistan, punjab had terminated all its water-sharing agreements with its neighbouring states in 2004. the demand of kutch (in indian gujarat), which used to fall into a catchment area of river indus, decades back, was not taken into consideration despite many petitions, arguing about their historical claim on its water, sent by the prominent kutchi leaders, in 1950s, to india’s ministry of irrigation and power. also people from the indian side of kashmir always show their ire against the iwt. on 3 april 2002, the jammu & kashmir legislative assembly, cutting across party affiliations, called for a review of the treaty. the state government has been contending that in spite of untapped hydroelectric potential, the state has been suffering from acute power deficiency due to restrictions put on the use of its rivers by the indus treaty. they claim that their interests were not taken into consideration and their views were not taken while signing the treaty. (6-7) this is from my latest paper, “disputed waters: india, pakistan and the transboundary rivers,” published by studies in indian politics, and which you can find here. here is a map of all the indian states mentioned in the excerpt above: share this:tweetemailshare on tumblrpocketlike this:like loading... 1 comment testing the high-wage economy (hwe) hypothesis 12/07/201612/07/2016 vincent geloso economics, history anton howes, economic growth, economic history, england, france, high wage economy, industrial revolution, jane humphries, joel mokyr, judy stephenson, leonard dudley, morris altman, nick crafts, piece rates, pseudoerasmus, robert allen, spinning jenny, stephen broadberry, textile, twitterminar, wages over the last week or so, i have been heavily involved in a twitterminar (yes, i am coining that portemanteau term to designate academic discussions on twitter – proof that some good can come out of social media) between myself, judy stephenson , ben schneider , benjamin guilbert, mark koyama, pseudoerasmus,  anton howes (whose main flaw is that he is from king’s college london while i am from the lse – nothing rational here), alan fernihough and  lyman stone. the topic? how suitable is the “high-wage economy” (hwe) explanation of the british industrial revolution (bir). twitter debates are hard to follow and there is a need for summaries given the format of twitter. as a result, i am attempting such a summary here which is laced with my own comments regarding my skepticism and possible resolution venues. an honest account of hwe first of all, it is necessary to offer a proper enunciation of hwe’s role in explaining the industrial revolution as advanced by its main proponent, robert allen.  this is a necessary step because there is a literature attempting to use high-wages as an efficiency wage argument. a good example is morris altman’s economic growth and the high-wage economy  (see here too) altman summarizes his “key message” as the idea that “improving the material well-being of workers, even prior to immediate increases in productivity can be expected to have positive effects on productivity through its impact on economic efficiency and technological change”. he also made the same argument with my native home province of quebec relative to ontario during the late 19th century. this is basically a multiple equilibria story. and its not exactly what allen advances. allen’s argument is that wages were high in england relative to energy. this factors price ratio stimulated the development of technologies and industries that spearheaded the bir. this is basically a context-specific argument and not a “conventional” efficiency wage approach as that of allen. there are similarities, but they are also considerable differences. secondly, the hwe hypothesis is basically a meta-argument about the industrial revolution. it would be unfair to caricature it as an “overarching” explanation. rather, the version of hwe advanced by robert allen (see his book here) is one where there are many factors at play but there is one – hwe – which had the strongest effects. moreover, while it does not explain all, it was dependent on other factors that contributed independently.  the most common view is that this is mixed with joel mokyr’s supply of inventions story (which is what nick crafts has done). in the graph below, the “realistically multi-causal” explanation is how i see hwe. in allen’s explanation, it holds the place that cause #1 does. according to other economists, hwe holds spot #2 or spot #3 and mokyr’s explanations holds spot #1. in pure theoretical terms (as an axiomatic statement), the allen model is defensible. it is a logically consistent construct. it has some questionnable assumptions, but it has no self-contradictions. basically, any criticism of hwe must question the validity of the theory based on empirical evidence (see my argument with graham brownlow here) regarding the necessary conditions. this is the hallmark of allen’s work: logical consistency. his work cannot be simply brushed aside – it is well argued and there is supportive evidence. the logical construction of his argument requires a deep discussion and any criticism that will convince must encompass many factors. why not france? or how to test hwe as a doubter of allen’s theory (i am willing to be convinced, hence my categorization as doubter), the best way to phrase my criticism is to ask the mirror of his question. rather than asking “why was the industrial revolution british”, i ask “why wasn’t it french”. this is what allen does in his work when he asks explicitly “why not france?” (p.203 of his book). the answer proposed is that english wages were high enough to justify the adoption of labor-saving technologies. in france, they were not. this led to differing rates of technological adoptions, an example of which is the spinning jenny. this argument hinges on some key conditions : wages were higher in england than in france unit labor costs were higher in england than in france (productivity-adjusted wages) (a point made by kelly, mokyr and ó gráda) market size factors are not sufficiently important to overshadow the effects of lower wages in france (r&d costs over market size mean a low fixed cost relative to potential market size) the work year is equal in france as in england the cost of energy in france relative to labor is higher than in england output remained constant while hours fell – a contention at odds with the industrious revolution which the same as saying that marginal productivity moves inversely with working hours if most of these empirical statements hold, then the argument of allen holds. i am pretty convinced by the evidence advanced by allen (and e.a. wrigley also) regarding the low relative of energy in england. thus, i am pretty convinced that condition #5 holds. moreover, given the increases in transport productivity within england (here and here), the limited barriers to internal trade (here), i would not be surprised that it was relatively easy to supply energy on the british market prior to 1800 (at least relative to france). condition #3 is harder to assess in terms of important. market size, in a smithian world, is not only about population (see scale effects literature). market size is a function of transaction costs between individuals, a large share of which are determined by institutional arrangements. france has a much larger population than england so there could have been scale effects, but france also had more barriers to internal trade that could have limited market size. i will return to this below. condition #1,2,4 are basically empirical statements. they are also the main points of tactical assault on allen’s theory.  i think condition #1 is the easiest to tackle. i am currently writing a piece derived from my dissertation showing that – at least with regards to strasbourg – wages in france presented in allen (his 2001 article) are heavily underestimated (by somewhere between 12% and 40% using winter workers in agriculture and as much as 70% using the average for laborers in agriculture). the work of judy stephenson, jane humphries and jacob weisdorf has also thrown the level and trend of british wages into doubts. bringing french wages upwards and british wages downwards could damage the allen story. however, this would not be a sufficient theory. industrialization was generally concentrated geographically. if labor markets in one country are not sufficiently integrated and the industrializing area (lets say the “textile” area of lancashire or the french manchester of mulhouse or the caën region in normandy) has uniquely different wages, then allen’s theory can hold since what matters is the local wage rate relative to energy. pseudoerasmus has made this point but i can’t find any mention of that very plausible defense in allen’s work. condition #2 is the weakest point and given robert fogel’s work on net nutrition in france and england, i have no problem in assuming that french workers were less productive. however, the best evidence would be to extract piece rates in textile-producing regions of france and england. this would eliminate any issue with wages and measuring national productivity differences. piece rates would perfectly capture productivity and thus the argument could be measured in a very straightforward manner. condition #4 is harder to assess and more research would be needed. however, it is the most crucial piece of evidence required to settle the issue once and for all. pre-industrial labor markets are not exactly like those of modern days. search costs were high which works in a manner described (with reservations) by alan manning in his work on monopsony but with much more frictions. in such a market, workers may be willing to trade in lower wage rates for longer work years. in fact, its like a job security argument. would you prefer 313 days of work guaranteed at 1 shilling per day or a 10% chance of working 313 days for 1.5 shillings a day (i’ve skewed the hypothetical numbers to make my point)? now, if there are differences in the structure of labor markets in france and england during the 18th and 19th centuries, there might be differences in the extent of that trade-off in both countries. different average discount on wages would affect production methods. if french workers were prone to sacrifice more on wages for steady employment, it may render one production method more profitable than in england. assessing the extent of the discount of annual to daily wages on both markets would identify this issue. the remaining condition (condition #6) is, in my opinion, dead on arrival. allen’s model, in the case of the spinning jenny, assumed that labor hours moved in an opposite direction as marginal productivity. this is in direct opposition to the well-established industrious revolution. this point has been made convincingly by gragnolati, moschella and pugliese in the journal of economic history.  in terms of research strategy, getting piece rates, proper wage estimates and proper labor supplied estimates for england and france would resolve most of the issue. condition #3 could then be assessed as a plausibility residual.  once we know about working hours, actual productivity and real wages differences, we can test how big the difference in market size has to be to deter adoption in france. if the difference seems implausible (given the empirical limitations of measuring effective market size in the 18th century in both markets), then we can assess the presence of this condition. my counter-argument : social networks and diffusion for the sake of argument, let’s imagine that all of the evidence favors the skeptics, then what? it is all well and good to tear down the edifice but we are left with a gaping hole and everything starts again. it would be great to propose a new edifice as the old one is being questioned. this is where i am very much enclined towards the rarely discussed work of leonard dudley (mothers of innovation). simply put, dudley’s argument is that social networks allowed the diffusion of technologies within england that fostered economic growth. he has an analogy from physics which gets the point across nicely. matter has three states : solid, gas, liquid. solids are stable but resist to change. gas, matter are much more random and change frequently by interacting with other gas, but any relation is ephemeral. liquids permit change through interaction, but they are stable enough to allow interactions to persist for some time. technological innovation is like a liquid. it can “mix” things together in a somewhat stable form. this is where one of my argument takes life. in a small article for economic affairs, i argued (expanding on dudley) that social networks allowed this mixing (i am also expanding that argument in a working paper with adam martin of texas tech university). however, i added a twist to that argument which i imported from the work of israel kirzner (one of the most cited books in economics, but not by cliometricians – more than 7000 citations on google scholar). economic growth, in kirzner’s mind,  is the result of entrepreneurs discovering errors and arbitrage possibilities. in a way, growth is a process of discovering correcting errors. an analogy to make this point is that entrepreneurs look for profits where the light is while also trying to move the light to see where it is dark. what kirzner dubs as “alertness” is in fact nothing else than repeated and frequent interactions. the more your interact with others, the easier it becomes for ideas to have sex. thus, what matters is how easy it is for social networks to appear and generate cheap information and interactions for members without the problem of free riders. this is where the work of anton howes becomes very valuable. howes, in his phd thesis supervised by adam martin who is my co-author on the aforementioned project (summary here), showed that most innovators went in frequent with one another and they inspired themselves from each other. this is alertness ignited! if properly harnessed, the combination of the works of howes and dudley (and also james dowey who was a phd student at the lse with me and whose work is *trump voice* amazing) can stand as a substitute to allen’s hwe if invalidated. conclusion if i came across as bashing on allen in this post, then you have misread me. i admire allen for the clarity of his reasoning and his expositions (given that i am working on a funded project to recalculate tax-based measures in the us used by piketty to account for tax avoidance, i can appreciate the clarity in which allen expresses himself). i also admire him for wanting to “go big or go home” (which you can see in all his other work, especially on enclosures). my point is that i am willing to be convinced of hwe, but i find that the evidence leans towards rejecting it. but that is very limited and flawed evidence and asserting this clearly is hard (as some of the flaws can go his way). nitpicking allen’s hwe is a necessary step for clearly determining the cause of bir. it is not sufficient as a logically consistent substitute must be presented to the research community. in any case, there is my long summary of the twitteminar (officially trademarked now!) p.s. inspired by peter bent’s inet research webinar on institutional responses to financial crises, i am trying to organize a similar (low-cost) venue for presenting research papers on hwe assessment. more news on this later. share this:tweetemailshare on tumblrpocketlike this:like loading... 3 comments post navigation ← older posts search bar search for: follow us email updates enter your e-mail address, then click "the box" join 3,096 other followers recent comments john styles on testing the high-wage economy (hwe) hypothesis radu leca on prices in canada, 1688 to 2015 ryan on a flaw regarding the chance of “out-earning” your parents lemmuslemmus on a flaw regarding the chance of “out-earning” your parents michelangelo landgrave on regional jealousies and transboundary rivers in south asia michelangelo landgrave on sons outearning fathers in chetty et al. : working hours should be considered sons outearning fathers in chetty et al. : working hours should be considered | notes on liberty on a flaw regarding the chance of “out-earning” your parents static on a flaw regarding the chance of “out-earning” your parents for many people, the american dream has been vanishing - marginal revolution on a flaw regarding the chance of “out-earning” your parents zachary woodman on has there been any improvements in the relative economic conditions of american blacks? 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for example, you - 0.03% (2)
can register at - 0.03% (2)
can prove you - 0.03% (2)
outcomes under castro’s - 0.03% (2)
of in-kind payments - 0.03% (2)
be worth it. - 0.03% (2)
your email address - 0.03% (2)

Here you can find chart of all your popular one, two and three word phrases. Google and others search engines means your page is about words you use frequently.

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